"Kih-chi-itwe-win" (The Great Declaration or Word)
The James Bay Treaty also known as, "Treaty Number 9" was signed in 1905 between various Anishinaabe (Northern Ojibway) and Mushkegowuk (Northern Cree) bands and the governments of the day (Dominion of Canada and the Province of Ontario). Since 1905, there has been differing perspectives about the way treaty was brought, communicated and "negotiated" with the peoples.
In this essay, we provide the Anishinaabe and Mushkegowuk view and understanding of the treaty. We also provide a “window” into the lives and living conditions of our peoples at the time of the treaty signing.